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Syntax of Words about "Vengeance" (β)

  03, 2017 23:57

III. ① castīgō 1. "to chastise (by punishment)"  [SVO] 
  (i) O = Clyt. (ii) O = Murder
    (i) "They used to chastise boys not only by verbs but also by lashes." Cic. Tusc. 3.64
    (ii) "... that this natural damage was... or to be chastised?" Liv. 7.4.6

*SInce all the words in Group β pertain to not "avenge" but "punish," they never takes "Ag." as either objective or object; hence we omit listing the variety of syntaxes of these words below.

  *The Origincastus* ("free from, unstained, chaste")



VI. ① supplicium (n.) "satisfaction, penalty" 
  (i) gen. = Clyt. (ii) gen. = Murder  (iii) ~ium summum ("death penalty")
    (i) "... those who were demanding the punishment upon the consul." Tac. Hist. 3.75
    (ii) "to avoid the punishment for the crime"  Apul. Met. 9.9
  
(iv) ~ium dare + dat. ("Clyt. pays the penalty to Or.") < [var.] pendere, luere etc.
    (iv) Graeciae supplicium Persas dare potuisse Nep. Ag. 5.2
        "the Persians... to make atonement to Greece" ―― J.S. Watson (1886)
          = "the Greeks... to take vengeance on the Persians" ―― Loeb edition (1929)
  (v) ~ium sumere + de abl. ("Or. exacts punishment from Clyt.) < [var.] exigere; ab, ex etc.
    (v) homo nefarius de homine nobili... virgis... supplicium... sumeret Cic. Ver. 2.91
        "the evil man would exact punishment from the noble man with lashes"

  *The Origin: supplicium ("peace-offering" [either to deity or a person wronged])
     ~ium dare ("to give reparation") ⇔ ~ium sumere ("to accept reparation")




VII. ① poena (f.)  [1] "the penalty" [2] "revenge"
  [1]-(i) gen. = Murder
     (i) "Why do you reserve the punishment for the present badness?" Cic. Cael. 59
  [1]-(ii) ~as dare + dat. ("Clyt. pays the penalty to Or.") < [var.] sufferre, pendere, luere etc.
     
(ii) "You shall give the penalty to me with your warm blood" Enn. Ann. 100
  [2]-(i) gen. = Ag. (ii) gen. = Murder
     (iii) "You will pay the penalties on behalf of the both (victims)." Verg. A. 9.422
     (iv) "Ides of March has brought us... the revenge of our hatred and pain" Cic. Att. 1.16.7


  *The Originποινή, ἡ ("ransom, penalty, vengeance")
         (i) ποινὰς δοῦναι = δίκην δοῦναι = dare poenas = "Clyt. pays the panalty"
         (ii) ποινὰς λαμβάνειν = sumere poenas = "Or. exacts the punishment"
         (iii) gen. = Murder (iv) gen. = Ag.
           (iii) "take up the ransom for the death of Aesop"
           (iv) "pay the ransom on behalf of the killed envoys"

 
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